who is the queen of canada

Queen Elizabeth II became the first monarch to be separately proclaimed Sovereign of Canada. [352] It was argued by Alfred Neitsch that this undermined the Crown's legitimacy as a check and balance in the governmental system,[353] a situation Helen Forsey (daughter of Canadian constitutional expert Eugene Forsey) said prime ministers take advantage of, portraying themselves as the embodiment of popular democracy and the reserve powers of the Crown as illegitimate. [342] Former Governor General Adrienne Clarkson said there is "an abysmal lack of knowledge about the system"[343] and Senator Lowell Murray wrote in 2003: "The Crown has become irrelevant to most Canadians' understanding of our system of Government", which he attributed to the "fault of successive generations of politicians, of an educational system that has never given the institution due study, and of past viceregal incumbents themselves". Civil lawsuits against the Crown in its public capacity (that is, lawsuits against the Queen-in-Council) are permitted, but lawsuits against the monarch personally are not cognizable. [8] The Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Canada are traditionally displayed in Canadian courtrooms,[211] as is a portrait of the sovereign. [n 9][n 10] As such, the constitution instructs that any change to the position of the monarch or his or her representatives in Canada requires the consent of the Senate, the House of Commons, and the legislative assemblies of all the provinces. In dismissing a challenge to the law on the basis that a change to the succession in Canada would require unanimous consent of all provinces under section 41(a) of the Constitution Act, 1982, Quebec Superior Court Justice Claude Bouchard ruled that Canada "did not have to change its laws nor its Constitution for the British royal succession rules to be amended and effective" and constitutional convention committed Canada to having a lines of succession symmetrical to those of other Commonwealth realms. [243], Conversely, unofficial duties are performed by royal family members on behalf of Canadian organizations of which they may be patrons, through their attendance at charity events, visiting with members of the Canadian Forces as colonel-in-chief, or marking certain key anniversaries. [30] The monarchy has thus been described as the underlying principle of Canada's institutional unity and the monarch as a "guardian of constitutional freedoms"[48][141] whose "job is to ensure that the political process remains intact and is allowed to function. Case in point, the historic Diamond Jubilee Celebrations in Canada cost about $7.5 million and the royal homecoming visit from Prince William and the Duchess of Cornwall Kate Middleton cost taxpayers just over $649,000. While the power for these acts stems from the Canadian people through the constitutional conventions of democracy,[29] executive authority remains vested in the Crown and is only entrusted by the sovereign to the government on behalf of the people. The Manual of Official Procedure of the Government of Canada states the prime minister is responsible for convening parliament, tabling a resolution of loyalty and condolence from parliament to the new monarch, and arranging for the motion to be seconded by the Leader of the Official Opposition. Her Majesty was the first child of King George VI (The Duke of York) and Queen Elizabeth. ", "Will the prorogation of Parliament set off a populist revolt? ", "Markham law graduate fighting Catholic ban on royal succession", "The boy who won't be king: uOttawa law grad challenging succession rules", "Royal succession law not subject to charter challenge: court", "Disposition of Public Land to Other Governments and Agencies", "PM announces new Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments", "Bill 22, Legislative Assembly Oath of Allegiance Act, 1995 > 1720", "Bill 22, Legislative Assembly Oath of Allegiance Act, 1995 > 1620", Table Research Branch of the House of Commons, "Memorandum for Understanding of Cooperation on Addressing Climate Change", "A First Nations – Federal Crown Political Accord", "DCBA 414 011759Z Apr 09 MFSI Annual Rates for the Fiscal Year 2009/2010", "The Form and Order of Service that is to be performed and the Ceremonies that are to be observed in the Coronation of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II in the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, on Tuesday, the second day of June 1953", "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada", "In the Wake of Constitutional Crisis: New Survey Demonstrates that Canadians Lack Basic Understanding of Our Country's Parliamentary System", "Governor General calling herself 'head of state' riles monarchists", "Keep the Queen and choose another head of state", "The Office > Annual Reports > Report on Performance", "The Office > Annual Reports > 2003–2004 > Annual Report 2003–2004", "Governor General > Role and Responsibilities", "Media > News Releases and Messages > For the First Time, a Head of State is Officially Welcomed at the Governor General's Residence at the Citadelle: One of the Highlights of the Governor General's Program During Her Stay in Quebec City from September 18 to 24, 2006", "The Governor General's Decision to Prorogue Parliament: Parliamentary Democracy Defended or Endangered", "How the term "head of state" is actually used in Canada", "Governor General to Dan Gardner: you're right", "If you do all the head-of-state stuff, aren't you the head of state? "[249] Hence, the insignia and medallions for these awards bear a crown, cypher, and/or portrait of the monarch. 1982). His Majesty) or feminine (e.g. Edward was the first member of the royal family to reside in Canada for a sustained period of time. Mirroring the mood in the United Kingdom, the family's lowest approval was during the mid-1980s to 1990s, when the children of the monarch were enduring their divorces and were the targets of negative tabloid reporting. When Queen ends her reign, Canada can just fail to proclaim Charles as the king", harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSmith1995 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMcKeon2007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMarleau2000 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBerezovsky2009 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMacKinnon1976 (, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDepartment_of_Canadian_Heritage2010 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBell2007 (, Provincial and territorial executive councils, Commonwealth realm § Relationship of the realms, Succession to the Throne Act, 2013 § Constitutional issues, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments, Minister of Innovation, Science, and Economic Development, relationship between sovereign and aboriginals, representing the Canadian state at home or abroad, the Crown's relationship with the country's military, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act, 1936, Canada had certain claim to its Arctic territories, Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, "Crown in Canada > Royal Family > His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales", "The Crown and the Constitution: Sustaining Democracy? Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth).Her father ascended the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. (Government of Canada/Chris Jackson) [141] The sovereign is further both mentioned in and the subject of songs, loyal toasts, and salutes. "[345] He later iterated: "the public's attention span on the constitutional intricacies of the monarchy is clinically short". [289] At first, the monarch was the only member of the Royal Family to carry out public ceremonial duties solely on the advice of Canadian ministers; King Edward VIII became the first to do so when in July 1936 he dedicated the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in France. [111] Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, also has a Canadian private secretary and his wife,[318] Sophie, Countess of Wessex, a lady-in-waiting. "[290] Princess Anne used it again when speaking at Rideau Hall in 2014. As a result, the Queen of Canada and Queen of the United Kingdom are legally distinct office holders, just as the Canadian Crown and British Crown are distinct offices. [85], The new monarch is crowned in the United Kingdom in an ancient ritual, but one not necessary for a sovereign to reign. However, the Queen is the only member of the royal family with any constitutional role. [285] Nonetheless, the concept of the Canadian Royal Family did not emerge until after the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, when Canadian officials only began to overtly consider putting the principles of Canada's new status as an independent kingdom into effect. [n 26] Each of these royal seats holds pieces from the Crown Collection. They have four children: After her father's death, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was crowned in Westminster Abbey on June 2, 1953. Each is called Government House, but may be customarily known by some specific name. [236] In 2005 members of the royal family were present at a total of 76 Canadian engagements, as well as several more through 2006 and 2007. A number of awards in Canada are likewise issued in the name of previous or present members of the royal family. Two Queen’s University graduate students and an alumnus have been appointed to the Order of Canada. Official duties involve the sovereign representing the Canadian state at home or abroad, or her relations as members of the royal family participating in government organized ceremonies either in Canada or elsewhere;[n 16][236][237][238][239] sometimes these individuals are employed in asserting Canada's sovereignty over its territories. "[74], The Great Seal of Canada "signifies the power and authority of the Crown flowing from the sovereign to [the] parliamentary government"[177] and is applied to state documents such as royal proclamations and letters patent commissioning cabinet ministers, senators, judges, and other senior government officials. As early as 1959, it was recognized that the Queen was "equally at home in all her realms"; While the government houses are the Queen's official residences in Canada, they are almost exclusively occupied by the sovereign's representative in each of those jurisdictions that have a government house or houses. "[102][103], Ted McWhinney, another constitutional scholar, has argued that a future government of Canada could begin a process of phasing out the monarchy after the eventual demise of Elizabeth II "quietly and without fanfare by simply failing legally to proclaim any successor to the Queen in relation to Canada". They work together to make the laws for our country. They implement the laws. ", "Manley regrets focus on anti-monarchy comments", "Bloc Québécois leader calls monarchy "ridiculous, "Royal rumble: Queen not welcome at Quebec celebrations, Duceppe says", "A Short History of the United Empire Loyalists", "Purpose Statement > What the Association Stands For", "Canadians apathetic about Prince Charles: poll", "Speech to the University of Alberta Convocation", "Arguments for Repatriating the Monarchy", "Fiftieth Anniversary of the 1939 Royal Visit", "A Tradition of Vigilance: The Role of Lieutenant Governor in Alberta", "Ensuring Constitutional Wisdom During Unconventional Times", "Some Visual Aspects of the Monarchical Tradition", The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Armed Forces, The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945), Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence, List of the last monarchs in the Americas, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monarchy_of_Canada&oldid=991682380, Articles with dead external links from January 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from February 2016, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with dead external links from September 2010, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from January 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 08:37. ‘God Save the Queen’ remains the royal anthem of Canada. But it was not until October 2002 when the term Canadian Royal Family was first used publicly and officially by one of its members: in a speech to the Nunavut legislature at its opening, Queen Elizabeth II stated: "I am proud to be the first member of the Canadian Royal Family to be greeted in Canada's newest territory. Long live the King". It has nothing to do with the individual who occupies the Throne at the moment. These include the Canadian Cancer Society and the Canadian Nurses Association. ", "House of Commons Procedure and Practice > 1. For example, under the provisions of the Bill of Rights 1689 and the Act of Settlement 1701, Catholics are barred from succeeding to the throne; this prohibition has been upheld twice by Canadian courts, once in 2003 and again in 2014. Remarks by Douglas M. Gowdy. Her Majesty is patron of more than 600 charities and organizations, of which 36 are in Canada. 1948), or, depending on how things go, her more popular and handsome grandson, Prince William (b. As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians),[n 13] the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property),[138] state owned companies (Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright). 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[91] As the Statute of Westminster 1931 disallowed the UK from legislating for Canada, including in relation to succession,[92] Order in Council P.C. The Queen inspects the Guard of Honour mounted by the Ceremonial Guard on Parliament Hill, July 1, 2010. Only some Members of Parliament belonging to these parties and the leaders of the Bloc Québécois have made any statements suggesting abolition of the monarchy. Canada is part of the Commonwealth of Nations, and shares a monarchy with the UK, Australia, and the other realms. You will not receive a reply. In 1936, King Edward VIII abdicated and any possible future descendants of his were excluded from the line of succession. Governor General Julie Payette announced 114 appointments to the Order of Canada on Friday, Nov. 27, including Michele Leering, a lawyer and the executive director of the Community Advocacy & Legal Centre who is currently pursuing a PhD in the Faculty of Law, and Tessa Virtue, an … So the current Queen of Canada is Elizabeth II (b. [85][88] The prime minister will then move to adjourn parliament. There are three household regiments specifically attached to the Royal Household—the Governor General's Foot Guards, the Governor General's Horse Guards, and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. Canada, meanwhile, is the country of the counter-revolution, which has willingly and successfully retained this source of legitimacy. [332] By 2002, the royal tour and associated fêtes for the Queen's Golden Jubilee proved popular with Canadians across the country,[333][334][335] though Canada's first republican organization since the 1830s was also founded that year. The date of the first establishment of monarchy in Canada varies: some sources give the year as 1497, when, On a number of occasions, the sovereign has carried out foreign relations as the representative uniquely of Canada, such as the visits to the United States by, The only Canadian monarch to abdicate, Edward VIII, did so with the authorization of the Canadian government granted in, Gary Toffoli of the Canadian Royal Heritage Trust stated that the approval given by the Queen in her Canadian Council in 1981 to the marriage of, For example, if a lawsuit is filed against the federal government, the respondent is formally described as, Illustrative of this arrangement is property transfers; of this, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources states: "When public land is required by the federal government or one of its departments, or any provincial ministry, the land itself is not transferred. In right of each is represented by a Lieutenant governor Canada by Col. B.J view the of... 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