The next outer layer is comprised of lymphocytes surrounding the phagocytes. The phagocyte can then present this antigen to cells (lymphocytes) that make up the 3rd line of defence and activate lymphocytes. Exogenous antigens are basically found on the invading pathogen itself. Donât forget to check out our break down guide to Module 7: Infectious Disease here if you need a quick recap of the module! If the plant or plant material is dead, it will be subjected to radiation to remove any pests or disease that is present. New posts Search forums. However, the use of antibiotic has side effects that included deafness, vertigo and nausea. Forums. This limits the transmission of disease between cells. This means that diseases, such as Influenza, can spread from one country to another at a massive scale. For an organism to obtain natural actively acquired immunity, it involves the organism naturally AND unintentionally being exposed to pathogens such as in daily life. When the phagocyte has ‘engulfed’ the antigen, it will combine with a lysosome, which contains digestive enzymes (e.g. Also it reduced amount of hospitalisation required. Both drugs increased puking, nausea and headache symptoms in patients. 1.1 Causes of Infectious Disease. Saliva in our mouth are contains enzymes called lysozymes that is capable of decomposing their protective cell wall of bacteria which led to their eventual decomposition. Year 12 HSC Biology Practice Questions: Module 5: Heredity Module 6: Genetic Change Module 7: Infectious Disease Module 8: Non-Infectious Disease and Disorders HSC Biology Module 1: Cells as the Basis of Life Question 1. Content 1 Content 2 Content 3 Content 4 Content 5. Therefore, the drugs would be ineffective in controlling the disease. T cells are also stored in lymphatic tissues in the spleen, thymus, tonsils and liver. If the Helper T cell, which the B cell presented the antigen to, has matching surface receptor protein to the antigen, it will become activated. The Aboriginal people also did not receive money when product derived from the plant is sold. Notes & Resources. Quarantine is different to isolation as isolation which is used to refer to the act of separating individual(s) or species, that is has contracted a specific disease (and thus infected with a pathogen), from unaffected individuals or species. The role of the lymph system is to filter and return intercellular fluid to the blood using lymph nodes connected by lymph vessels. Since water is necessary for survival, it is important ensure that the water consumed is free of pathogens prior to consumption to prevent and control the spread of disease such as cholera. Rather, you should say the specific name of the T cell that you are talking about, for example, ‘Helper T cells are activated’ or ‘Cytotoxic T cells are activated’. The pause in protein synthesis result in the bacteria of the new generation not having the required protein or enzymes to invade cells. Furthermore, the disparity in the access to valuable information about methods that can be use prevent or control the spread of disease may vary across countries. The Aboriginal Peoples demonstrated their technique or protocols (method) of using substances in specific fruits and plants, as bush medicine, to meet their specific medicinal needs. Public Health Campaigns are advertised and/or provided to the public to convey a health message and generate a desire from the target audience. The physical barriers constituting to the first line of defence in animals (such as humans) include: The chemical barriers that makes up the first line of defence are: Body secretions – urine, lysozymes, saliva. 1. We will provide you a named example of virus affecting a plant that you can use in your exams. There should be one toilet cubicle or facilitate per every 20 individual and they should be separated according to gender. Eating utensils should be cleaned with detergent and hot water before allowed to be used by another individual to ensure that the tools are free from pathogens. You will see later that the third line of defence involves B and T cells involved in initiating the adaptive immune response need to bind with a specific antigen. Conveying and establishing standardised methods pertaining the storage, handling and cooking of food in restaurants. This high level of acidic is able to dissolve pathogens or mucus that contains any trapped pathogens. Similarly, the alkaline environment in our intestines are able to decompose and kill pathogens. For example, in Module 6, we have talked about how Bt Corn and Bt Cotton are transgenic crops are capable of manufacturing insecticide that kills pests that it makes contact with that may be carrying a pathogen. As the name suggests, they produce thick mucus which is able to trap pathogens and antigens. Apoptosis is essentially programmed death of infected cells and surrounding cells of infected cell so stop the spread of pathogens, effector molecules and infection in general. However, these documentations are not reflective of the full collection of flora belonging to the Aboriginal People and, thus, many biotechnological companies are granted rights to indigenous plants. There are also many ethical issues that are surrounding the topic of genetic engineering that we have explored in Module 6. Remember that there are many ways which Helper T cells can be activated by antigen. Etc … Please review the previous section about ‘T Lymphocytes’ to review on all other activities. The work of Louis Pasteur & Robert Koch in predicting the spread of disease in the mid 1800s was already discussed in Week 9 Notes. Sign up for HSC Study Lab today! 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