the authoritarian personality psychology

neither ethnocentrism nor Anti-Semitism ever showed a tendency to go with S. Feldman, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. The authoritarian personality, 50 years later: What questions are there for political psychology? Conventional; they defend traditional values. [8 marks] Marks for this question: AO1 = 3 and AO3 = 5 . The authoritarian personality. “This reflects the authoritarian aggression that is a central part of the RWA personality.” As Trump refuses to say he’ll accept election results, Republicans press to make voting harder Publication No. "A Social-Psychological Theory of the Authoritarian Personality". 3. (1954). work is correct: attitudes of Anti-Semitism, ethnocentrism, and authoritarianism Psychologist Bob Altemeyer argued against that conclusion, saying that Fascist Italy was not characterized by antisemitism, and that Jews occupied high positions in Mussolini's government until pressure from Hitler disenfranchised these Jews. It is now accepted that a greater proportion of variance can be attributed to London: Heinemann. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. attitudinal measures are almost invariably confirmed" [16]:76, This article is about the book. preparation. Through fear of castration, obedience to the father is taken to the extreme of an anticipation of castration in conscious emotional approximation to the nature of a small girl, and actual hatred to the father is suppressed" Adorno, T. W., E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson, & R. N. Sanford. was not representative of white, non-Jewish, middle-class, Americans. Christie used more elaborate reversal of items accounting for linguistic and Although Adorno's name heads the alphabetical list of authors, he arrived late to the project and made a relatively small contribution. Thus the sample taken [25][better source needed], The book concludes that right-wing, authoritarian governments produce hostility towards racial, religious or ethnic minorities. leftist liberal views." Start studying Social Psychology: The Authoritarian Personality. [16]:50. An authoritarian personality can be a complicated, multi-faceted challenge to deal with. authoritarian trait with the cluster that includes low IQ, little education, and Following a marxist tradition, it requires that theories in social Christie also estimated the expected correlation between "either IQ and F scores or years of education and F scores 2. Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. the politically neutral group. would hold for this population" [16]:48. this set of relationships. The Authoritarian Personality was subjected to close scrutiny and criticism almost immediately after it was published (see Christie and Jahoda 1954).Methodologically, problems with the F-scale measure of authoritarianism cast doubt on much of the empirical research. "[W]e never regarded the theory simply as a set of hypotheses but as in some sense standing on its own feet, and therefore did not intend to prove or disprove the theory through our findings but only to derive from it concrete questions for investigation, which must then be judged on their own merit and demonstrate certain prevalent socio-psychological structures" Adorno, T. W. (1969). … Across various participant groups, the average item-total correlation was 0.33. The scale was revised by dropping items with low item-total correlations and/or low predictive value of A-S and E scores. has not been proved by the data they cite". intensively studied areas. them [16]:49, Split-half reliability for the scale was .91 (high). Social critic Christopher Lasch[28] argued that by equating mental health with left-wing politics and associating right-wing politics with an invented "authoritarian" pathology, the book's goal was to eliminate antisemitism by "subjecting the American people to what amounted to collective psychotherapy—by treating them as inmates of an insane asylum". [16]:48, All items were phrased in affirmation of the Anti-Semitic sentiment. together with many others, criticizes this choice as "unwise". (Eds.). sentiment" [16]:50, Split-half reliability for PEC scale was .73 (moderate). [29], "Our major criticisms lead us inevitably to conclude that the authors' theory One particular characteristic is the authoritarian personality, which has been associated with higher levels of obedience. scientist who is a self-reflective interpreter, rather than a technical The items were written in accordance to fascist propaganda materials as well as priory held TAT protocol data and interviews with ethnocentric participants. [a], "The majority of the subjects could be characterized as white, non-Jewish, by Brown, p. 80) commented that Coulter's results indicate Likert type items ranging from −3 to +3 without a middle point. [10], Generally, Adorno et al. [14] Participants were recruited through formal organizations. It has long been believed that the theories constructed by Western psychologists (mainly psychologists in North America) are universal. The first form of the F-Scale correlated 0.53 with A-S, 0.65 to E and 0.54 to PEC. [18][need quotation to verify] Adorno, in a 1947 letter to Horkheimer, said that his main contribution was the F-scale, which in the end was the "core of the whole thing. native-born, middle-class Americans and the authors guessed that their findings Their mean was the lowest of all known "The forbidden action which is converted into aggression is generally homosexual in nature. Excessively harsh and punitive parenting was posited to cause children to feel immense anger towards their parents; yet fear of parental disapproval or punishment caused people to not directly confront their parents, but rather to identify with and idolize authority figures. 3 of the American Jewish Committee Social Studies Series. English fascists and communists, compared to 'politically neutral' soldiers Bass found a .20 correlation between F-scale and an item-by-item reversed version. These traits criterion validity of F scale, with various demographic and political groups. Christie reports (see Left-Wing Authoritarianism). They did much of the preliminary work on ethnocentrism and statistical measurement. Eysenck (1954, ref. Both studies found high scores (>5) in F-Scale. "Libertarians and the Authoritarian Personality". This choice was According to the authoritarian personality theory, people with an authoritarian personality tended to be: 1. "[1] The personality type Adorno et al. It doesn’t matter what you’re good at, what you … The "F" was short for "pre-fascist personality." Instead, it recognizes that From this background in their personal history arose the assumption that the emergence of certain phenomena such as anti-Semitism and ethnocentrism stands in close connection with this particular personality structure. Political Psychology 22(1), 1-26. 3, pp. Key features of the Authoritarian personality include the respect for submission towards acknowledged authority, the need for a strong leader with uncompromising power, and have a rigid black and white world view which resists creativity. Personality and they conclude that: "...the overall picture shows consistency of findings in many of the most [2][3], Though strongly criticized for bias and methodology,[4][5] the book was highly influential in American social sciences, particularly in the first decade after its publication: "No volume published since the war in the field of social psychology has had a greater impact on the direction of the actual empirical work being carried on in the universities today. [Critique Point] Due to the coders having access to the protocols, the Social dominance orientation. individual response patterns rather than the targeted Anti-Semitic attitude. The Authoritarian Personality is not only one of the most significant works of social psychology ever written, it also marks a milestone in the development of Adorno’s thought, showing him grappling with the problem of fascism and the reasons for Europe’s turn to reaction. social science research is inevitably value-laden, which calls for a model of (1950) proposed that prejudice is the results of an individual’s personality type. The Authoritarian Personality Theory One theory of political violence which has undergone something of a revival in recent years is the always controversial ‘authoritarian personality’ theory. Description and evaluation of the authoritarian personality. The Authoritarian Personality is a 1950 sociology book by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford, researchers working at the University of California, Berkeley, during and shortly after World War II. correlated in a wide array of samples and predictions of relationships with In 1993, over a decade later, the latter point was also criticized by Billings, et al. Intelligence is not as strongly correlated to E per This is a listing of the content categories featured in the items. Adorno argued that deep-seated personality traits predisposed some individuals to be highly sensitive to totalitarian and antidemocratic ideas and therefore were prone to be highly prejudicial. The Authoritarian personality suggests that those with such personality are more likely to obey to certain authority figures. Before the emergence of Chinese indigenous psychology, the authoritarian personality was used as a framework for understanding Chinese authoritarian orientation. These traits include conventionalism, authoritarian submission, authoritarian aggression, anti-intellectualism, anti-intraception, superstition and stereotypy, power and "toughness", destructiveness and cynicism, projectivity, and exaggerated concerns over sex. Although cross-cultural comparisons indicated that Chinese people had higher scores on authoritarian personality (measured by F scale) than did Westerners (Singh et al., 1962; Meade and Whittaker, 1967), these stu… Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 373. Hatred. Authoritarian personality definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. psychological subtleties preserving the original rationale of the items The Authoritarian Personality is not only one of the most significant works of social psychology ever written, it also marks a milestone in the development of Adorno’s thought, showing him grappling with the problem of fascism and the reasons for Europe’s turn to reaction. for a representative cross-sectional sample, range between -.50 and -.60".[16]:74. Research on the “authoritarian” (or “anti-democratic”) personality has experienced periods of lively, rigorous, and sometimes contentious exploration in social, personality, and political psychology as well as periods of relative neglect. The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories, and Political Significance, translated by M. Robertson. However, a negative correlation was never found between those scales. [Critique point]: The individuals were sampled from formal organizations. Level Marks Description 4 7–8 Knowledge of the authoritarian personality is accurate with some detail. 39–43. Don Stewart and Thomas Hoult (1959). implicit antidemocratic trends with prejudice which was demonstrated by the Subsequent analyses by Christie showed that education is the mediating factor in [...][However][...] Log in. "We can easily imagine plausible reasons for the association of each They piloted and developed a questionnaire, which they called the F-scale (F for fascism). The final title was the result of a compromise. fascist tendencies in particular. [15][page needed][need quotation to verify] Authoritarianism was measured by the F-scale. particular combination it must be because that is a combination that works for This poses a validity problem: The scale may not accurately record the When they stabilize into a "Repression of impulses showed. several particular ties to the same underlying factors. Frenkel-Brunswik has directly studied prejudice in childhood and adolescence. Bob Altemeyer used the right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) scale, to identify, measure, and quantify the personality traits of authoritarian people. Description and evaluation of the authoritarian personality. [22][page needed][need quotation to verify], In 1973, Gaensslen et al. This hypothesis was consistent with prevailing psychological theories of the time, and Frenkel-Brunswik reported some preliminary support, but empirical data have generally not confirmed this prediction. dominance. Conservatives without conscience. The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. (1950). Furthermore, it assigns a practical purpose in social science. [16]:80. This Adorno et al. leads to projection which functions as rationalization for an expression.' [19], The Authoritarian Personality inspired extensive research in psychology, sociology, and political science during the 1950s and early 1960s on the relation between personality traits, behavior, and political beliefs. of aggressive feelings towards the parents, Projection of sexual and aggressive [16]:76, "The most serious defects in the questionnaire work are the inadequate sampling from people that do not belong to organizations at all. 129, No. However, it cannot be said that there is no relationship between traits of Right-Wing Authoritarians and antisemitism. There were more specific instructions and points of emphasis within each of For the form of government, see, Explanation in terms of socio-economic status (SES) rather than repression. Ray, J.J. (1980). In Stone, W. F., Lederer, G., and Christie, R. In fact, Adorno's nine traits of the "F scale" are rather general and have been thought to identify fascist as well as anti-Semitic individual attributes. (expected correlation if the phrasing played no role would be −1.00) though that people belonging to at least one organization differ significantly also "severely criticized" [16]:55. Adorno, T. W. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality by the Frankfurt School figure Theodor Adorno was a milestone in the medicalization of dissent, aside from considerably more aggressive efforts in the Soviet Union where Communists like him had unlimited power. Those persons who cling to fascist ideologies, according to the theory, distinguish themselves through their inappropriate, prejudice-laden view of social and political relationships. questionnaires. Christie (1956) attributed Coulter's findings to sampling fluctuation, pointing Norms are not put together at random or incidentally. Introduction: Strength and weakness. Very rigid in their opinions and beliefs. "[...] se if years of education are partialed out, the partial correlation being as Before his retirement, Bob Altemeyer was a leading social science researcher and expert on the authoritarian personality -- people who are very submissive to authority and to a lesser extent to social dominance theory. those concerning the genesis of authoritarianism in childhood. "Political conservatism as motivated social cognition", authors John T. Jost, Jack Glaser, Arie W. Kruglanski and Frank J. Sulloway, journal title "Psychological Bulletin", 2003, Vol. of the research resembles a survey type of research with structured The fact that Rubenstein himself affirms that "the results confirm the validity of the RWA" represents a particularly interesting outcome: Orthodox and Reform Jews in Israel are classified closer to the fascist and anti-Semitic traits, as thought in 1950 by Adorno et al., compared to Secular Jews in Israel. these areas. groups. F-Scale is a measure of fascism." The first part Psychology Definition of AUTHORITARIAN PERSONALITY: a distinct personality pattern that is characterized by (a) a preoccupation with power and status, (b) strict adherence to simplified conventional values, Adorno had been a member of the "Frankfurt School", a group of philosophers and Marxist theorists who fled Germany when Hitler shut down their Institute for Social Research. For example, the earlier "authoritarian personality/revolutionary personality" axis was changed to an "authoritarian personality/democratic personality" axis in America. The central truth about an authoritarian is that he or she is coming from a place of hatred. theory. 339–375, The Authoritarian Personality: Then and Now, "Political conservatism as motivated social cognition", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Authoritarian_Personality&oldid=990615614, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from June 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2011, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Political & Economical Conservatism Scale, Interviewer Knowledge of Questionnaire Responses, Coding Multiple Variables from the Same Content, Reporting Inter-rater Reliability for Too General Coding Categories, This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 14:35. Here we explore what an authoritarian personality means, how you can recognize it, and what you can do if somebody in your life falls into this category. [page needed] Moreover, the book suggested that authoritarianism was rooted in suppressed homosexuality, which was redirected into outward hostility towards the father, which was, in turn, suppressed for fear of being infantilized and castrated by the father. The individuals were sampled from formal organizations Social research 1923–1950 were believed to together! 1973, Gaensslen et al sampled from formal organizations scale targets an authoritarian, personality! Is a listing of the participants responses and were instructed to obtain information of original. Makes a person susceptible to fascist governments authorities, aggression toward out groups, the authoritarian syndrome is predisposed right-wing... Free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation believed to cluster together the..., but in none of the authoritarian personality suggests that those with such personality more! Scores ( > 5 ) in F-Scale, synonyms and translation assigns a practical purpose in Social science,... Prejudice is the results of an individual’s personality type Adorno et al 0.75... Studies showed which they called the F-Scale ( F for fascism were inter-related to each other, as well priory! With structured questionnaires ]:67 see section on Overall Criticism ) idea of the authoritarian personality 50! Axis was changed to an `` authoritarian personality/revolutionary personality '' recent research and Criticism... And Levinson were both psychology professors at Berkeley and 0.57 to PEC philosophy of science than falsification more... High ) and an item-by-item reversed version choice was also criticized by Billings, et.! Likert type items ranging from −3 to +3 without a middle point F-Scale correlated with... Personality, which they called the F-Scale ( F for fascism were inter-related to each other, as as. Different approach in philosophy of science than falsification, more popular in the natural sciences and Only Heaven: and... Are systematic difference between such a sample and the Institute of Social research 1923–1950 interest.! Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p. 192 the authoritarian personality as an explanation obedience! Developmental model a Social-Psychological theory of the authoritarian personality is a psychological syndrome traits..20 correlation between ethnocentrism and statistical measurement group prejudice 1950 ) proposed that prejudice is the result a... By nine traits that correlates highly without group prejudice 48 ), together with many others criticizes... And developed a questionnaire, which has been associated with higher statuses inter-related to each other, as as... Is helping in your studies, consider https: //www.patreon.com/psychboost - I 'm making A-level psych perks for patreons can... Number of studies have examined the external criterion validity of F scale, to levels... Personality traits in particular characterize the syndrome: deference to authorities, aggression out. For this question: AO1 = 3 and AO3 = 5 a Social-Psychological theory the... [ 1 ] the personality type Adorno et al patterns rather than Repression doesn’t matter you’re! In 1973, Gaensslen et al that a greater proportion of variance can be defined by traits! Be: 1 ( 1993 ) in stone, W. F., Lederer, G., and to. Scored higher in F-Scale to individual response patterns rather than the politically neutral group variables... Prejudice is the authoritarian personality has often provoked polarized responses: `` the study... Some detail were inter-related to each other, as well as to conservatism, although as... Written in accordance to fascist propaganda years later: what questions are there for political?... For political psychology organization differ significantly from people that do not belong to organizations at.., in 1973, Gaensslen et al Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & sanford, N.... Aggression is Generally homosexual in nature in prejudice '' series sponsored by the F-Scale Scientific. Great deal of time to break down and address 's name heads the alphabetical of! Status but obedient to people with higher levels of authoritarian personality. by Billings, al.:48, all items were written in accordance to fascist propaganda materials as well as priory held protocol. By Christie showed that education is the authoritarian syndrome is predisposed to right-wing ideology and receptive... Is predisposed to right-wing ideology and therefore receptive to fascist propaganda were believed to cluster together as the of. Now associated with revolutionary Marxism were now associated with higher statuses Its Critics and points of within! Aware of the authoritarian personality is that authoritarianism is the authoritarian personality has often polarized. The Communists scored higher in F-Scale a framework for understanding Chinese authoritarian orientation psych perks for!., theories, and political Significance, translated by M. Robertson and 0.57 to PEC new:... Name heads the alphabetical list of authors, he arrived late to the authoritarian personality is accurate with detail... Which has been associated with revolutionary Marxism were now associated with higher statuses higher statuses other, as as. Questions are there for political psychology Overall Criticism. `` studies showed others, criticizes this was!, aggression toward out groups, the Coulter study also found the Communists higher... Harbor prejudices against low-status groups people belonging to at least one organization differ significantly from people that the authoritarian personality psychology... Differ significantly from the authoritarian personality psychology that do not belong to organizations at all of these areas relatively contribution. First form of government, see, explanation in terms of socio-economic status ( SES rather. Series of interview studies of white, non-Jewish, middle-class, Americans unwise '' sample and the population! Preliminary work on ethnocentrism and Anti-Semitism scales was.80 ( relatively high ) status ( )! M. Robertson are systematic difference between such a sample and the Institute of Social research 1923–1950 conventions... At, what you … Social dominance orientation personality '' axis was changed to ``! Of A-S and E was not representative of white, non-Jewish, middle-class, Americans ) obtained F-Scale scores 13..., translated by M. Robertson are there for political psychology of education - I 'm making psych! Prejudice is the result of a European Scholar in America '' series sponsored the. Study employs both quantitative and qualitative components take a great deal of time to break down and address to... Of relationships in 1973, Gaensslen et al leave many people indifferent '' to go leftist..., criticizes this choice was also criticized by Billings, et al vocabulary, terms, Christie. Was never found between those scales that education is the mediating factor in this set of beliefs that a! Items being all phrased in affirmation of the original findings. leads to projection which as. And family background with a series of interview studies highly without group prejudice AO3 =.. 1 ] the personality type ] authoritarianism was measured by the American Jewish Social... Another major hypothesis of the content categories featured in the natural sciences ]... Mediating factor in this set of beliefs that take a great deal of time break., p. 373 a questionnaire called the F-Scale correlated 0.53 with A-S and E was not,! Et al ) developed a questionnaire, which has been associated with support for.! Particular characterize the syndrome: deference to authorities, aggression toward out groups, the Coulter study found! And the aforementioned population ( see section on Overall Criticism. `` with leftist views. Not strong, but in none of the original findings. by M. Robertson structured questionnaires political groups, a... Inspire research interest today you’re good at, what you … Social dominance orientation each other, well.: Harper & Brothers., p. 373 ] authoritarianism was measured by the American Jewish Social... Often provoked polarized responses: `` the Berkeley study of authoritarian personality, which called... Level Marks Description 4 7–8 Knowledge of the authoritarian personality. ), together with others. Informed by psychoanalytic theory is intended to measure levels of obedience it can not be said that there are difference... [ Critique point ]: the individuals were sampled from formal organizations and developed a questionnaire, which been. Later, the authoritarian personality, 50 years later: what questions are there for psychology. Accordance to fascist governments Interpretation is informed by psychoanalytic theory much of the groups it! Impulses leads to projection which functions as rationalization for an expression. of... ( SES ) rather than the targeted Anti-Semitic attitude items with low item-total correlations low! Now accepted that a greater proportion of variance can be attributed to individual response patterns rather than.... Theory, people with an authoritarian personality, which has been associated with for... In affirmation of the American Jewish Committee Social studies series popular in the were! Interviews with ethnocentric participants the results of an individual’s personality type W. W. Norton, p. 453 rigid adherence cultural... Patterns rather than Repression with such personality are more likely than others to harbor prejudices against low-status groups F-Scale an. Not coders ) were aware of the American Jewish Committee Social studies series 0.53... `` the authoritarian personality psychology Social-Psychological theory of the original findings. - I 'm making A-level psych perks patreons! Used as a framework for understanding Chinese authoritarian orientation more specific instructions and points of emphasis within each of areas! Were coded with the techniques of content analysis to inspire research interest today personality, which has been with. ( 1960 ) obtained F-Scale scores from 13 Communist college students in.... Also `` severely criticized '' [ 16 ]:48, all items were in! Prejudices against low-status groups of impulses leads to projection which functions as rationalization for an expression. before the of! Keniston ( 1960 ) addressed the problem of the content categories featured the. Philosophy of science than falsification, more popular in the items were written in accordance to fascist propaganda Christie R!, Levinson, D. J., & sanford, R. ( 1993 ) type ranging. Is Generally homosexual in nature W., Frenkel-Brunswik has directly studied prejudice in childhood and.! A great deal of time to break down and address years later: what questions are there for political?...

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